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A membrane treatment process which falls between reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration on the filtration/separation spectrum.

The nanofiltration process can pass more water at lower pressure operations than reverse osmosis, can remove particles in the 300 to 1,000 molecular weight range such as humic acid and organic color bodies present in water, and can reject selected (typically polyvalent) salts.

Nanofiltration may be used for selective removal of hardness ions in a process known as membrane softening.