Glossary of Terms

Glossary of Terms - I

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Inductive Coupling Argon Plasma Spectroscopy
Inductive Coupling Plasma Spectroscopy
The dose at which 50 percent of the subjects become infected.
A clear, cone-shaped container marked with graduations.

The cone is used to measure the volume of settleable solids in a specific volume (usually one liter) of water.

Not capable of being mixed.

For example, oil and water are said to be immiscible.

A rotating set of vanes in a pump designed to pump or lift water.
Not easily penetrated.

The property of a material or soil that does not allow, or allows only with great difficulty, the movement or passage of water.

Water which is stored in an artificial man-made basin or dammed ravine by diverting flowing streams or collecting rainfall runoff, as in a reservoir.
In place, the original location, in the natural environment.
Studies of chemical effects conducted in tissues, cells, or subcellular extracts from an organism (i.e., not in the living organism).
The addition of chemical coagulants directly to the filter inlet pipe.

The chemicals are mixed by the flowing water. Flocculation and sedimentation facilities are eliminated. This pretreatment method is commonly used in pressure filter installation.

See Also: Direct Filtration Conventional Filtration Direct Filtration Normal Flow Filtration Cross flow filtration Conventional Filtration Conventional Filtration Direct Filtration Normal Flow Filtration Cross flow filtration

A piping arrangement which directs separate streams through two or more units of a treatment system in a balanced manner, with equal flow to each device, so that a higher total flow rate than that from a single unit can be achieved.
A piping arrangement in which the entire effluent flow from one unit of a water treatment system is fed to a second succeeding unit.

This arrangement forces the water through multiple treatment units and achieves greater reduction of contaminants than can be achieved by a single pass of water through a single unit.

Water uses that can be carried out without removing the water from its source, as in navigation and recreation.
Percentage of animals with tumors.
The time between initial contact with an infectious agent and the appearance of the first sign or symptom of disease.
A material which can be used to show the endpoint of a chemical reaction, usually by a color change, or a chemical concentration by a depth or shade of color.
An emission spectroscopy technique for chemical analysis in which the elements that are to be measured are introduced into a high temperature (6,000 to 8,000 degrees C) argon plasma and, thereby, converted into atomic vapor.

Emission spectroscopy is used to identify and quantify the elements. The high temperature of the plasma limits interferences and ICP has broader application (e.g., for waste water analyses) than atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy for metals analyses, but it has lower detection power.

See Also: Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Spectroscopy Emission Spectroscopy Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Spectroscopy Adsorption Emission Spectroscopy Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy AAMI Grade Water Spectrometer Spectroscopy Emission Spectroscopy Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Fahrenheit Spectroscopy Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy AAMI Grade Water Spectrometer Spectroscopy Emission Spectroscopy Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy AAMI Grade Water Spectrometer Spectroscopy Emission Spectroscopy

Synthetic resin beads or water treatment materials that are nonreactive.

Inert media are used as a neutral nonreactive layer to more effectively separate the cation resin from the anion resin in mixed bed deionizers in order to regenerate each separately.

The movement of water into rocks or soil through interstitial pores, small cracks, or crevices in the soil or rock.
A subsurface groundwater collection system, typically shallow in depth, constructed with open-jointed or perforated pipes that discharge collected water into a water-tight chamber.

From this chamber, the water is pumped to treatment facilities and into the distribution system. Infiltration galleries are usually located close to streams or ponds and may be under the direct influence of surface water.

Quantity of water (usually measured in inches) that will enter a particular type of soil per unit time (usually one hour).
The stream entering a unit or process, such as the hard water entering an ion exchange water softener, or turbid water entering a filter system.
Type of exposure in which a substance is introduced through the mouth.
Type of exposure in which a substance is introduced through the lungs.
Any chemical substance that is added to a water supply (or solution of any kind) which interferes with ("inhibits") a chemical reaction.

For example, inhibitors are sometimes used to help prevent precipitation or corrosion.

The first full three-year compliance period which begins at least 18 months after promulgation.
Substances not derived from living oraganisms and containing no organically produced carbon; includes rocks, minerals, and metals.
The total power used in operating a pump and motor.

Input HP = (brake HP)(100%) / motor efficiency, %

Any substance or chemical formulated to kill or control insects.
The process of connecting conditioning equipment into the water system and a drain line provided where necessary. The term is also used to refer to the complete assembly of piping, valves, drain line, water conditioning unit, and related equipment.
A summation over time, in all media, of the magnitude of exposure to a toxic chemical.
The surface which forms a common boundary between two spaces or two parts of matter, such as the surface boundary formed between oil and water.

The term "interface" is often used to refer to the space between two different ion exchange resins in a mixed bed or to the resin surface at the regeneration grid in a mixed bed deionization system.

Lateral movement of water in the upper layer of soil.
An electrical control unit which delays the regeneration of one ion exchange unit while another unit is in the regeneration cycle.
The term usually applied to the interrupted patterns of water usage; also used in reference to specific on-off flow patterns selected to test the performance of water conditioning equipment under standard conditions which may or may not be similar to actual patterns of use.
Friction within a fluid (water) due to cohesive forces.
Water treatment processes involving the addition of chemicals to the makeup water used in steam generation for boiler operations.

Chemicals are often added to prevent scale buildup or corrosive pitting of metal in boiler system components.

See Also: Club Soda Community Water System Zone of Saturation Bottled Artesian Water Bottled Distilled Water Bottled Fluoridated Water Bottled Mineral Water Bottled Natural Water Lime Soap Bottled Spring Water Brackish Water Brine Ion Exchange Aesthetic Contaminants Health Contaminant Drainage Basin Drinking Water Drinking Water Standards Municipal Water Permutit Process Phosphate Potable (Drinking) Water Etching External Water Treatment United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Water Softening WFI Sulfur (S) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Safe Water Sewage Silica Sodium Carbonate Softened Water Soft Water External Water Treatment

Model used to extrapolate from results observed in laboratory animals to humans.
Any vehicle or transport which conveys passengers in interstate commerce.
The pores or other spaces which are not occupied by solid matter and may be found between filter medium particles, ion exchange resin beads, or other similar treatment media.

Interstices may be occupied by air, water, or other gaseous or liquid material.

This term is also used to refer to similar spaces between natural soil or rock particles; and spaces between atoms or molecules in solids.

The lowest point of the channel inside a pipe, conduit, or canal.
(I2) A nonmetallic element which is the heaviest and least reactive of the naturally-occurring halogens.

It may be used for disinfection. In both its liquid and vapor forms, iodine is readily adsorbed by activated carbon.

A measure of the ability of an activated carbon product to adsorb substances with low molecular weights.

The iodine number of a carbon is equal to the milligrams (mg) of iodine that can be adsorbed on one gram of activated carbon.

An atom, or group of atoms which function as a unit, and has a positive or negative electrical charge due to the gain or loss of one or more electrons.
A reversible chemical process in which ions from an insoluble permanent solid medium (the "ion exchanger"--usually a resin) are exchanged for ions in a solution or fluid mixture surrounding the insoluble medium.

The superficial physical structure of the solid is not affected. The direction of the exchange depends upon the selective attraction of the ion exchanger resin for the certain ions present and the concentrations of the ions in the solution.

Both cation and anion exchange are used in water conditioning. Cation exchange is commonly used for water softening.

See Also: Free Base Form Cation Exchange Resin Cation Exchange Resin Cation Exchange Ion Exchanger Anion Exchange Electrodialysis Resin Free Acid Form Free Base Form Water Softening Service Unit Hot Process Softening Hydraulic Classification Free Acid Form Validation Thermal Stratification Stratification Stratified Bed Cation Exchange Resin Cation Exchange Resin Cation Exchange Ion Exchanger Anion Exchange Electrodialysis Resin Free Acid Form Free Base Form Water Softening Service Unit Club Soda Community Water System Zone of Saturation Bottled Artesian Water Bottled Distilled Water Bottled Fluoridated Water Bottled Mineral Water Bottled Natural Water Lime Soap Bottled Spring Water Brackish Water Brine Internal Water Treatment Aesthetic Contaminants Health Contaminant Drainage Basin Drinking Water Drinking Water Standards Municipal Water Permutit Process Phosphate Potable (Drinking) Water Etching External Water Treatment United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Water Softening WFI Sulfur (S) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Safe Water Sewage Silica Sodium Carbonate Softened Water Soft Water Lime (CaO) Lime Softening Burnt Lime (CaO) Hydrated Lime Hot-Lime Softening Hot Lime-Soda Softening Hot Process Softening Municipal Softening Rated Capacity Water Softening Soda Ash Rated Capacity

A water-tight and electrically-conductive membrane which is either ion exchange resin cast in sheet form or powdered ion exchange resin laminated to a membrane fabric.

Both anion and cation ion exchange membranes are used in electrodialysis treatment systems.

See Also: Dialysis

A permanent insoluble material (usually a synthetic resin) which contains ions that will exchange reversibly with other ions in a surrounding solution.

Both cation and anion exchangers are used in water conditioning. The volume of an ion exchanger is measured in cubic feet (or cubic liters) of exchanger after the exchanger bed has been backwashed and drained and has settled into place.

See Also: Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Fahrenheit Absorption Backflow Cation Exchange Resin Cation Exchange Resin Chelating Agent Chlorination Chemisorption Circle of Influence Cone of Influence Contamination Conventional Filtration Cation Exchange Bioconcentration Biodegradable Blowdown Oxidation Oxidize Oxidizing Agent Turnover Induced Infiltration Intermittent Flow Ion Ion Exchange Spectroscopy Ionic Constant In-line Filtration Ionization Adsorption Air Stripping Anion Exchange Hot Process Softening Hypolimnion Direct Filtration Disinfect Disinfection Dissociation Eductor Normal Flow Filtration Pollution Electrodialysis Electron Emission Spectroscopy Epilimnion Recharge Hydraulic Classification Redox Rejection Resin Rinse Rzynar Index Fluoride Free Acid Form Free Base Form Validation Vapor Variance Water Softening Water Table Thermal Stratification Thermocline Titrate Sterilize Sterilization Stratification Stratified Bed Surfactant Sacrificial Anode Saturated Solution Saturation Index Sequestering Agent Sequestration Single-Stage Recirculation Chelating agent Cross flow filtration Cation Exchange Resin Cation Exchange Resin Cation Exchange Ion Exchange Anion Exchange Electrodialysis Resin Free Acid Form Free Base Form Water Softening Service Unit

A measure of the concentration of any ion in solution, usually expressed in moles per liter.
A measure in absolute units of the extent to which a chemical compound or substance in solution will dissociate into ions.

See Also: Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Fahrenheit Absorption Backflow Cation Exchange Resin Cation Exchange Resin Chelating Agent Chlorination Chemisorption Circle of Influence Cone of Influence Contamination Conventional Filtration Cation Exchange Bioconcentration Biodegradable Blowdown Oxidation Oxidize Oxidizing Agent Turnover Induced Infiltration Intermittent Flow Ion Ion Exchange Spectroscopy Ion Exchanger In-line Filtration Ionization Adsorption Air Stripping Anion Exchange Hot Process Softening Hypolimnion Direct Filtration Disinfect Disinfection Dissociation Eductor Normal Flow Filtration Pollution Electrodialysis Electron Emission Spectroscopy Epilimnion Recharge Hydraulic Classification Redox Rejection Resin Rinse Rzynar Index Fluoride Free Acid Form Free Base Form Validation Vapor Variance Water Softening Water Table Thermal Stratification Thermocline Titrate Sterilize Sterilization Stratification Stratified Bed Surfactant Sacrificial Anode Saturated Solution Saturation Index Sequestering Agent Sequestration Single-Stage Recirculation Chelating agent Cross flow filtration

The weight of an ion as determined by the sum of the atomic weights of its components.
The process in which atoms gain or lose electrons and thus become ions with positive or negative charges; sometimes used synonymously with dissociation: the separation of molecules into charged ions in solution.
An element (Fe) often found dissolved in ground water (in the form of ferrous iron) in concentrations usually ranging form 0 to 10 ppm (mg/L). It is objectionable in water supplies because of the staining caused after oxidation and precipitation (as ferric hydroxide), because of tastes, and because of unsightly colors produced when iron reacts with tannins in beverages such as coffee and tea.
Organisms which are capable of utilizing ferrous iron, either from the water or from steel pipe, in their metabolism and precipitating ferric hydroxide in their sheaths and gelatinous deposits. These organisms tend to collect in pipe lines and tanks during periods of low flow and to break loose in slugs of turbid water to create staining, taste, and odor problems.
The accumulation of iron on or within an ion exchange resin bed or filter medium in such amounts that the capacity of the medium is reduced.
Effect characterized by the inability of the body to partially or fully repair injury caused by a toxic agent.
The measurement which represents the relationship between the mass of the substance adsorbed (adsorbate) at a given temperature and the mass of the adsorbent.
One of two or more atoms or elements which have the same atomic number (occupy the same position in the periodic table) but which differ in other respects such as atomic weight and number of neutrons in the nucleus.