Glossary of Terms

Glossary of Terms - B

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Pressure which creates resistance against a flow of water.
A form of backflow which occurs due to negative pressure. See Also: Backwash Cross Connection Backwash Backwash
Flow of water in a pipe or line in a direction opposite to normal flow; often associated with back siphonage or the flow of possibly contaminated water into a potable water system.
A device or system installed in a water line to stop backflow from a nonpotable source.
In contaminant monitoring, the average presence of a substance in the environment, originally referring to naturally occurring phenomena.
The process in which beds of filter or ion exchange media are subjected to flow opposite to the service flow direction; to loosen the bed and to flush suspended matter (collected during the service run) to waste.
Unicellular microorganisms which typically reproduce by cell division. Although usually classed as plants, bacteria contain no chlorophyll.
Any substance or agent which kills bacteria, both disease causing and nondisease causing. Spores and nonbacterial microorganisms (e.g., algae, fungi, and viruses) are not necessarily killed by a bactericide.
Having the ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria without destroying the bacteria. For example, silver-impregnated activated carbon will reduce bacterial colonization in a bed but not eliminate it.
A deflecting barrier to affect the flow pattern of water.
A 10- to 20-foot-long pipe equipped with a valve at the lower end. A bailer is used to remove slurry from the bottom or the side of a well as it is being drilled.
A flow pattern which is controlled to achieve the flow specified for that water treatment system.
The power supply to activate and regulate voltage in an ultraviolet (UV) lamp.
A unit of pressure. One bar equals 14.5 pounds per square inch (psi), or about 0.987 standard atmospheres.
In ion exchange deionization, a condition where the cation exchanger resin becomes coated with a very insoluble coating of barium sulfate. This occurs in the decationization unit when regenerated with sulfuric acid, where a barium-bearing water is being processed. Generally, the remedy must be to replace the cation resin and install upstream water softening to remove the barium prior to the deionization treatment.
A substance which releases hydroxyl ions when dissolved in water. Bases react with acids to form a neutral salt and water.
See Cation Exchange
A metal (such as iron) which reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to form hydrogen. See Also: Noble Metal Lead (Pb) Inorganic Matter Noble Metal
A method in which a fixed quantity of water is processed through a single treatment device in a single vessel.
An arbitrary scale of specific gravities used in the graduation of hydrometers. The Baume measurements were developed by the French chemist Antoine Baume . For liquids heavier than water Be = 145 - (145 specific gravity); for liquids lighter than water, Be = (140 ö specific gravity) - 130.
A relatively coarse salt made from seawater.
In water processing, refers to the spherical shape of individual particles of ion exchange resin products, as compared to the irregular shaped particles of most other granular media products. See Also: Type 1 Resin Type 2 Resin
A method of evaluating the physical condition (quality) of the resin in a bed by determining the percent of whole, cracked, or broken beads in a wet sample of the resin.
Flagellate protozoan which is shed during its cyst stage into the feces of man and animals. When water containing these cysts is ingested, the protozoan causes a severe gastrointestinal disease called giardiasis. See Also: Cyst Giardia Giardia Lamblia Oocyst Cyst Giardia
The SI unit of radioactivity equal to one nuclear disintegration per second. The becquerel supersedes the curie, which equals 3.7 X 10E+10 nuclear disintegrations per second. One becquerel (Bq) equals 27.03 picocuries (pCi).
The filter media or ion exchange resin in a column or other tank or operational vessel.
The height of the filter media or ion exchanger in the vessel after preparation for service expressed in inches or centimeters.
The increase in volume of a bed of the ion filter or exchange media during backwashing due to lifting and separation of the bed material. Usually expressed as the percent of increase in bed depth.
A term used as a measurement of a volume of incoming (feedwater) in gallons or liters, equal to (in cubic feet or liters) the volume of ion exchange or filter media product in a tank including voids. Example: one bed volume for a cubic foot bed would be equal to 7.48 U.S. gallons or 28.3 liters. This term is used mainly in laboratory and in experimental testing rather than in equipment capacity ratings.
The best technology treatment techniques, or other means which the administrator finds, after examination for efficacy under field conditions and not solely under laboratory conditions, that are available (taking cost into consideration). For the purposes of setting MCLs for synthetic organic chemicals, any BAT must be at least as effective as granular activated carbon.
Structural, nonstructural, and managerial techniques that are recognized to be the most effective and practical means to control nonpoint source pollutants yet are compatible with the productive use of the resource to which they are applied. BMPs are used in both urban and agricultural areas.
An inadequacy in experimental design that leads to results or conclusions not representative of the population under study.
The HCO3 ion.
The alkalinity (HCO3) of a water due to the presence of bicarbonate ions.
The hardness of a water due to the presence of calcium and magnesium bicarbonates, usually the major component of carbonate hardness or total hardness. Bicarbonate hardness is often referred to simply as carbonate hardness. See Also: Calcite Carbonate Hardness Hardness Hardness as Calcium Carbonate Plastic Pipe Calcium Carbonate Total Hardness (TH) Soda Ash Carbonate Hardness Lime Soap Hardness Hard Water Total Hardness (TH) Soap Curd Carbonate Hardness Hardness Dissolved Organic Carbon Dissolved Solids Residual Chlorine Residue Carbonate Hardness Lime Soap Hardness Hard Water Total Hardness (TH) Soap Curd
A common name, along with baking soda, for sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3).
The retention and concentration of a substance by an organism.
Test which determines the effect of a chemical on a living organism.
The amount of oxygen (measured in mg/L) required in the oxidation of organic matter by biological action under specific standard test conditions. Widely used to measure the amount of organic pollution in waste water and streams.
A chemical which can kill or inhibit the growth of living organisms such as bacteria, fungi, molds, and slimes. Biocides can be harmful to humans, too. Biocides kill spores of living organisms also, and since spores are the most resistant of all life forms, a biocide may be properly defined as a sterilizing agent. See Also: Antiseptic Aseptic Aseptic Procedure Disinfect Sporicide Sanitization Sanitize
The accumulation of a chemical in tissues of an organism (such as fish) to levels that are greater than the level in the medium (such as water) in which the organism resides.
Subject to degradation (breakdown) into simpler substances by biological action. For example: the breakdown of detergents, sewage wastes, and other organic matter by bacteria.
Decomposition of a substance into more elementary compounds by the action of microorganisms such as bacteria.
An accumulation of sessile microbial growth imbedded in a film of adhesive polymer and attached on the surface of a support material, such as the interior surface of water pipe or water storage vessels. Bacteria within the film may be protected from the action of disinfectants and sanitizers. See Also: Plankton
A colorless, odorless, flammable gas consisting of the hydrocarbon (CH4) and resulting from the decay of vegetable matter or manure due to the action of anaerobic bacteria in swampy land, closed landfills, or sewage disposal plants. Methane is also known as biogas and it is called swamp gas when produced in marshy land. Coal miners know methane as one of the main components of fire-damp and also of coal-gas. Methane dissolved in water gives the water a milky cast, and since it is flammable, methane must be safely aerated and vented to the atmosphere during removal.
The activity and growth of any and all living organisms.
Activated carbon which maintains active microbiological growth to aid in the degradation and reduction of organics that have been adsorbed on the surface and in the pores of activated carbon. Biological activation of carbon can be enhanced by enriching the feedwater with air or ozone.
A process of adding nutrients to ground water to speed up the natural process in which bacteria breakdown gasoline and other petrochemicals into harmless compounds.
An agent similar to a bacteriostat but prevents the growth of (but not necessarily destroys) all living organisms.
An overall term for all living organisms in an ecosystem.
Conversion of a substance into other compounds by organisms; includes biodegradation.
The trade name for a manganese dioxide-coated volcanic aluminum silicate (pumicite) used as an oxidizing-catalyst filter for iron and manganese reduction.
1. Residual brines, containing chiefly calcium and magnesium chlorides, obtained after the salt has been crystallized and removed from solution. The term "mother liquor" is widely used when salt is produced by use of vacuum pan and gainer operations. In the solar salt evaporation process, the term "bitterns" is often used in place of the term "mother liquor". 2. A solution substantially freed from undissolved matter by a solid/liquid separation process, such as filtration or decanting.
Having a valence of two. Also called divalent.
Liquid and solid human body waste and the carriage water generated through toilet usage.
A bottle containing only dilution water or distilled water; the sample being tested is not added. Tests are frequently run on a sample and a blank and the differences are compared.
An oxidizing agent formulated to break down colored matter; includes the widely used hypochlorites, as well as perborates and other special purpose materials.
Places in the filter medium or membrane where no filtration takes place.
Activated carbon block is a blend of fine activated carbon (e.g., 80 X 325 mesh activated carbon), water, and a suitable binder (such as polyethylene or a similar material) that is mixed and molded and hardened or extruded to a cartridge filter of any size and shape. Sometimes specialized media are added along with activated carbon to provide customized performances for specific contaminants. The binder is particularly designed and chosen to hold the carbon and other media in a fixed solid matrix, yet, not to plug up the pores of the activated carbon. Even though the binder does occlude a portion of the adsorption sites, the finer mesh size gives activated carbon block filters faster adsorption kinetics and generally two to four times greater adsorption capacity than equivalent volumes of loose granular activated carbon. Activated carbon block filters typically have a 0.5 to 1 micron filtration capability, making it also helpful for particulate filtration, insoluble lead reduction, and demonstrating, in some cases, removal of Giardia and Cryptosporidium.
1. The technique sometimes used for recycling concentrate back to the feed. 2. Contaminant leakage through or by the water treatment device.
Single-celled organisms (singular=cyanobacterium) similar to bacteria, except cyanobacteria contain the green pigment chlorophyll (as well as other pigments), which traps the energy of sunlight and enables these organisms to carry on photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria are autotrophic producers of their own food from simple raw materials, whereas bacteria are heterotrophic decomposers of the wastes and bodies of other organisms. Cyanobacteria were formerly known as blue-green algae. Blooms or population explosions of cyanobacteria cause water pollution. Some cyanobacteria-like bodies (CLBs) have been associated with causing waterborne diarrheal illnesses.
A representative sample of the water or steam condensate circulating in a boiler system, taken after the generated steam has been separated and before the incoming feedwater or any added chemical has become mixed with the sample to change its composition. The quality of boiler feedwater must be carefully controlled to limits depending on the boiler pressure and horsepower rating.
A black pigment substance, with a carbon content of about 10 percent, made by carbonizing animal bones. Bone char is used for decolorizing sugar and water treatment. It has been used as a selective anion exchanger for fluoride and arsenic reduction.
The cover on a gate valve.
A shallow (10 to 100 feet or 3 to 30 meters) large-diameter well (8 to 36 inches or 20 to 90 cm.) constructed by hand-operated or power-driven augers.
Bottled water from a well tapping a confined aquifer in which the water level stands above the water table. Bottled artesian water shall meet the requirements of bottled natural water. See Also: Bottled Distilled Water Bottled Fluoridated Water Bottled Mineral Water Bottled Natural Water Bottled Spring Water Bottled Spring Water Club Soda Community Water System Zone of Saturation Bottled Distilled Water Bottled Fluoridated Water Bottled Mineral Water Bottled Natural Water Lime Soap Bottled Spring Water Brackish Water Brine Internal Water Treatment Ion Exchange Aesthetic Contaminants Health Contaminant Drainage Basin Drinking Water Drinking Water Standards Municipal Water Permutit Process Phosphate Potable (Drinking) Water Etching External Water Treatment United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Water Softening WFI Sulfur (S) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Safe Water Sewage Silica Sodium Carbonate Softened Water Soft Water Bottled Distilled Water Bottled Fluoridated Water Bottled Mineral Water Bottled Natural Water Bottled Spring Water Club Soda Community Water System Zone of Saturation Bottled Distilled Water Bottled Fluoridated Water Bottled Mineral Water Bottled Natural Water Lime Soap Bottled Spring Water Brackish Water Brine Internal Water Treatment Ion Exchange Aesthetic Contaminants Health Contaminant Drainage Basin Drinking Water Drinking Water Standards Municipal Water Permutit Process Phosphate Potable (Drinking) Water Etching External Water Treatment United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Water Softening WFI Sulfur (S) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Safe Water Sewage Silica Sodium Carbonate Softened Water Soft Water
Bottled water which has been produced by a process of distillation and meets the definition of purified water in the most recent edition of the United States Pharmacopeia. See Also: Bottled Artesian Water Bottled Fluoridated Water Bottled Mineral Water Bottled Natural Water Bottled Spring Water Club Soda Community Water System Zone of Saturation Bottled Artesian Water Bottled Fluoridated Water Bottled Mineral Water Bottled Natural Water Lime Soap Bottled Spring Water Brackish Water Brine Internal Water Treatment Ion Exchange Aesthetic Contaminants Health Contaminant Drainage Basin Drinking Water Drinking Water Standards Municipal Water Permutit Process Phosphate Potable (Drinking) Water Etching External Water Treatment United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Water Softening WFI Sulfur (S) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Safe Water Sewage Silica Sodium Carbonate Softened Water Soft Water
Bottled water containing fluoride. The label shall specify whether the fluoride is naturally occurring or added. Any water which meets the definition of bottled fluoridated water shall contain not less than 0.8 milligrams per liter fluoride ion and otherwise comply with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) quality standards in Section 103.35(d)(2) of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). See Also: Bottled Artesian Water Bottled Distilled Water Bottled Mineral Water Bottled Natural Water Bottled Spring Water Club Soda Community Water System Zone of Saturation Bottled Artesian Water Bottled Distilled Water Bottled Mineral Water Bottled Natural Water Lime Soap Bottled Spring Water Brackish Water Brine Internal Water Treatment Ion Exchange Aesthetic Contaminants Health Contaminant Drainage Basin Drinking Water Drinking Water Standards Municipal Water Permutit Process Phosphate Potable (Drinking) Water Etching External Water Treatment United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Water Softening WFI Sulfur (S) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Safe Water Sewage Silica Sodium Carbonate Softened Water Soft Water
Bottled water containing fluoride. The label shall specify whether the fluoride is naturally occurring or added. Any water which meets the definition of bottled fluoridated water shall contain not less than 0.8 milligrams per liter fluoride ion and otherwise comply with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) quality standards in Section 103.35(d)(2) of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). See Also: Bottled Artesian Water Bottled Distilled Water Bottled Fluoridated Water Bottled Natural Water Bottled Spring Water Club Soda Community Water System Zone of Saturation Bottled Artesian Water Bottled Distilled Water Bottled Fluoridated Water Bottled Natural Water Lime Soap Bottled Spring Water Brackish Water Brine Internal Water Treatment Ion Exchange Aesthetic Contaminants Health Contaminant Drainage Basin Drinking Water Drinking Water Standards Municipal Water Permutit Process Phosphate Potable (Drinking) Water Etching External Water Treatment United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Water Softening WFI Sulfur (S) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Safe Water Sewage Silica Sodium Carbonate Softened Water Soft Water
Bottled spring, mineral, artesian, or well water which is derived from an underground formation, and is not derived from a municipal system or public water supply. See Also: Bottled Artesian Water Bottled Distilled Water Bottled Fluoridated Water Bottled Mineral Water Bottled Spring Water Bottled Spring Water Bottled Artesian Water Bottled Distilled Water Bottled Fluoridated Water Bottled Mineral Water Bottled Spring Water Club Soda Community Water System Zone of Saturation Bottled Artesian Water Bottled Distilled Water Bottled Fluoridated Water Bottled Mineral Water Lime Soap Bottled Spring Water Brackish Water Brine Internal Water Treatment Ion Exchange Aesthetic Contaminants Health Contaminant Drainage Basin Drinking Water Drinking Water Standards Municipal Water Permutit Process Phosphate Potable (Drinking) Water Etching External Water Treatment United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Water Softening WFI Sulfur (S) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Safe Water Sewage Silica Sodium Carbonate Softened Water Soft Water
Water that is placed in a sealed container or package, and is offered for sale for human consumption or other consumer uses. Bottled water may be with or without natural or added carbonation, and may be prepared with added flavors, extracts, and/or essences derived from a spice or fruit and comprising less than one percent by weight of the final product. Said products shall contain no sweeteners, acidulants, or additives other than said flavors, extracts, or essences.
Any place or establishment in which bottled water is prepared for sale.
Water containing dissolved solids in the range of 1,000 to less than 15,000 parts per million. See Also: Common Salt Brine Dry-Salt Saturator Tank Wet-Salt Saturator Tank Salt Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Club Soda Community Water System Zone of Saturation Bottled Artesian Water Bottled Distilled Water Bottled Fluoridated Water Bottled Mineral Water Bottled Natural Water Lime Soap Bottled Spring Water Brine Internal Water Treatment Ion Exchange Aesthetic Contaminants Health Contaminant Drainage Basin Drinking Water Drinking Water Standards Municipal Water Permutit Process Phosphate Potable (Drinking) Water Etching External Water Treatment United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Water Softening WFI Sulfur (S) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Safe Water Sewage Silica Sodium Carbonate Softened Water Soft Water
1. The horsepower required at the top or end of a pump shaft (input to a pump). 2. The energy provided by a motor or other power source.
A metal alloy of copper, zinc, and usually some lead. Brass is harder and stronger than copper because of its zinc content; lead contributes malleability and ductility. Machined brass plumbing products are often made from Copper Development Association (CDA) 360 series brass which contains about 65 percent copper, 32 percent zinc, and 3 percent lead.
A chlorination procedure in which the chlorine is added until the chlorine demand is satisfied and a chlorine residual occurs. The breakpoint is reached when a free chlorine residual is achieved. Further additions of chlorine produce a free chlorine residual proportional to the amount added.
The appearance in the effluent from a water conditioner of the material to be removed by the conditioner, such as hardness in the effluent of a softener, or turbidity in the effluent of a mechanical filter. An indication that regeneration, backwashing, or other treatment is necessary for further service.
The appearance in the product water of an amount of the contaminant which exceeds the design performance criteria.
1. Bridging occurs in water softening when salt sticks together to form one large solid mass of pellets, or by the salt caking in a dry-salt brine tank which causes failure of the liquid or brine beneath the dry salt to become saturated. The result of bridging is insufficient salt in the regenerant solution to properly regenerate the cation resin. 2. The ability of particles to form a crustlike film over void spaces within a filter medium or membrane.
A strong solution of salt(s) (usually sodium chloride and other salts too) with total dissolved solids concentrations in the range of 40,000 to 300,000 or more milligrams per liter. Potassium or sodium chloride brine is used in the regeneration stage of cation and/or anion exchange water treatment equipment. Sodium chloride brine saturation in an ion exchange softening brine tank is about 26 percent NaCl by weight at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. See Also: Common Salt Brackish Water Dry-Salt Saturator Tank Wet-Salt Saturator Tank Salt Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Club Soda Community Water System Zone of Saturation Bottled Artesian Water Bottled Distilled Water Bottled Fluoridated Water Bottled Mineral Water Bottled Natural Water Lime Soap Bottled Spring Water Brackish Water Internal Water Treatment Ion Exchange Aesthetic Contaminants Health Contaminant Drainage Basin Drinking Water Drinking Water Standards Municipal Water Permutit Process Phosphate Potable (Drinking) Water Etching External Water Treatment United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Water Softening WFI Sulfur (S) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Safe Water Sewage Silica Sodium Carbonate Softened Water Soft Water
A device used to gather and retrieve brine from a brine tank or ion exchange bed. See Also: Distributor
Usually means the process of drawing a brine solution into a cation or anion exchange water treatment device during regeneration.
A device used to draw (or educt) brine from a brine tank and force (or eject) it into a cation and/or anion water treatment device. Usually a component of the unit's control valve.
A perforated platform in the bottom section of a brine tank of home water softeners which creates a zone where water can come in contact with the lower side of the dry salt stored above. As the water reaches up to the salt layer, it creates the brine makeup for regeneration.
Tiny indentations (dents) high on the shoulder of a water pump's bearing race or bearing. A type of bearing failure.
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.
A nonmetallic usually univalent or pentavalent element that lies between chlorine and iodine in the halogen group of the periodic table. Bromine has been used in swimming pools for disinfection and in cooling towers as a biocide, but its use in drinking water as a primary disinfectant has been limited because of uncertain effectiveness in the presence of organic material, ammonia, and other amines.
The random movement of microscopic particles suspended in a fluid medium.
The average diameter of the gas (e.g., ozone or air) bubbles discharged from a diffuser at the bottom of the contactor in an ozone or aeration system. Generally, the finer the bubble size and the longer the bubble resides (contacts) within the water, the greater will be the transfer of air or ozone to the water.
A chemical which causes a solution to resist changes in pH, or to shift the pH to a specific value.
The action of certain ions in solution in opposing a change in hydrogen-ion concentration.
A measure of the capacity of a solution or liquid to neutralize acids or bases. This is a measure of the capacity of water for offering a resistance to changes in pH.
A solution containing two or more substances which, in combination, resist any marked change in pH following addition of moderate amounts of either strong acid or base.
Strips of grass or other close-growing vegetation that separate a waterway (ditch, stream, creek) from an intensive land use area (subdivision, farm); also referred to as filter strips, vegetated filter strips, and grassed buffers.
A material that upgrades or protects the cleaning efficiency of the surfactant. Several types of compounds, with different performance capabilities, are used. Builders have a number of functions, principally inactivation of water hardness. This is accomplished either by sequestration, i.e., holding hardness minerals in solution, by precipitation, or by ion exchange. Complex phosphates are common sequestering builders. Sodium carbonate is a precipitating builder. Sodium aluminosilicate is an ion exchange builder. Other functions of builders are to supply alkalinity to assist cleaning, especially of acid soils, to provide buffering so that alkalinity is maintained at an effective level, to aid in keeping removed soil from redepositing during washing, and to emulsify oily and greasy soils.
A cleaning product containing both surfactant and builder. Home laundering makes use of built detergents almost exclusively because of their effective performance. Ingredients used in formulations along with surfactant and builder include fluorescent whitening agent, antiredeposition agent, corrosion inhibitor, suds control agent, oxygen bleach, colorant, fragrance, enzyme, bluing, and processing aids. Not all of these ingredients are used in every built detergent. Inclusion of antiredeposition and whitening agents, corrosion inhibitor, colorant, fragrance, and processing aids is customary. Complex phosphates (especially sodium tripolyphosphate), sodium carbonate, and sodium silicate are the builders most commonly used. (Sodium silicate is also a corrosion inhibitor.) Borax and sodium citrate are used to a lesser extent. Built detergents may be granular or liquid in form and produce high, medium, or low suds. Since built detergents are designed for doing laundry, they are classified as laundry detergents. They are also considered heavy duty. Those that are high sudsing are adapted to many nonlaundry household cleaning tasks, and are termed "all purpose."
A combination of soap and builder designed for general purpose use, especially laundering. It also usually contains fluorescent whitening agent, colorant, and fragrance. The granule form of built soap represented a major development and, by the late 1930s, had largely replaced laundry soap in bar and chip form. However, it still presented the classical soap problems in hard water, and thus built soap granules rapidly lost market share when built detergents were marketed in the late 1940s. Today, built soaps are in very limited distribution.
A calcined chemical material, calcium oxide. Lime is used in lime and in lime and soda ash water treatment, but must first be slaked to calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. Lime is also called burnt lime; calyx; fluxing lime; quicklime; unslaked lime. See Also: Lime (CaO) Quicklime Lime (CaO) Lime Softening Hydrated Lime Hot-Lime Softening Hot Lime-Soda Softening Hot Process Softening Municipal Softening Quicklime Water Softening Salinometer Slake Soap Soda Ash Soap Curd Lime (CaO) Lime Softening Hydrated Lime Hot-Lime Softening Hot Lime-Soda Softening Hot Process Softening Municipal Softening Quicklime Water Softening Salinometer Slake Soap Soda Ash Soap Curd Lime (CaO) Lime Softening Ion Exchange Hydrated Lime Hot-Lime Softening Hot Lime-Soda Softening Hot Process Softening Municipal Softening Rated Capacity Water Softening Soda Ash Rated Capacity Lime (CaO) Hydrated Lime
A connection or a valve system that allows untreated water to flow to a water system while a water treatment unit is being regenerated, backwashed, or serviced; also applied to a special water line installed to provide untreated water to a particular tap, such as a sill cock.